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About the CMO Quality Mark

Sena is certified with the Quality Mark for collective management organisations (CMO: collectieve beheersorganisaties).

This means that Sena complies with guidelines that safeguard the transparency of collective management organisations for both users and right holders. With regard to right holders, these guidelines include rules about a timely and comprehensive distribution of funds in line with the cost standards framework, involvement in the management of funds and the potential use of funds for social and cultural ends. The communication with and services provided to users and parties obliged to pay are covered by specific guidelines regarding consultations about payments, complete and transparent information provision, strict complaint handling times and independent dispute resolution.

The criteria for this quality mark are determined by a stakeholder committee, in which user representatives (appointed by VNO-NCW and MKB-Nederland) control 50% of the votes. Each year, these quality mark criteria are reviewed by the Keurmerkinstituut, an independent certification body.

Good governance

The CMO Quality Mark is awarded to Dutch not-for-profit organisations that collect and distribute payments related to copyright and/or neighbouring rights on a structural basis. The right holders represented by a collective management organisation must be represented on its board. The collective management organisation must adhere to the guidelines and regulations for good governance and integrity of the Supervisory Authority for Collective Management Organisations (Copyright and Neighbouring Rights) (CvTA: College van Toezicht Auteursrechten). These guidelines cover such topics as transparent governance and independent oversight and provide for a whistle-blowers' scheme with an external, independent reporting centre.

Serving the interest of right holders and users

The interests of right holders are ensured thanks to standards for transparency and consultation, particularly where potential investments or expenditure on social-cultural funds are concerned. Transparency is equally key when communicating with users about the represented rights, fees and the bases for payment calculations. There are also standards for the quality of services such as maintaining an address database and processing changes. The same complaints and disputes scheme applies to all users. If a complaint has not been handled to the complainant's satisfaction within two months, he or she has the right of an appeal to the independent Copyright Disputes Committee.


The activities of collective management organisations must be transparent not only to users and right holders. Information that must be made publicly available in the annual reports and on the websites of collective management organisations includes their financial details, the standards they use for management costs, their investment policies (if applicable), the distribution of payments (which must occur within three years) and the ancillary positions and salaries of managers and board members.
In addition, collective management organisations must supply comprehensive and up-to-date information to the Supervisory Authority for Collective Management Organisations (Copyright and Neighbouring Rights) four times a year, using a standardised reporting format.

Rights and obligations

The CMO Quality Mark comes with certain rights and obligations. A CMO Quality Mark is required for membership of VOI©E, the sector organisation for collective management organisations in the Netherlands. If a collective management organisation collaborates with another collective management organisation in order to perform its primary duties, the second collective management organisation must also meet the quality mark criteria. The following organisations have been awarded a CMO Quality Mark: the Dutch Performance Rights Organisation (Buma/Stemra), the Public Lending Right Office (Leenrecht), Lira, NORMA, Pictoright, PRO, Reprorecht, Sena, the Private Copy Association (Thuiskopie), VEVAM and Videma.

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